Those humours were blood, bile (choler), black bile, and phlegm. Each humour was associated with a season and an element (air, water, fire, and earth). While we no longer use this theory to treat people these terms continue to be used in the English language.
Easily irritated or angered; hot-tempered.
From the Greek chole (bile).
Having a sluggish temperament; apathetic.
Calm or composed.
From the Greek Phlegm which meant "inflammation, heat" (the humour phlegm was supposedly a result of heat)
Of or related to melancholia.
From the Greek melancholia (the condition of having an excess of black bile)
Relating to bile.
From the Latin bilis (bile).
Cheerfully optimistic or confident.
Having a healthy reddish color.
From the Latin sanguis (blood).